Genetic diversity analysis of Wamena Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) based on SSR markers
Wamena is notable for producing and exporting high-quality coffee. However, a molecular method based on its polymorphism and not affected by external factors is required since morphological observations alone are frequently insufficient for identifying the coffee. The objective of this study is to identify Wamena Arabica coffee in the Jayawijaya District using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) molecular markers. This research involved several stages, including DNA isolation and purification, PCR SSR amplification with 5 primers, polymorphism, and heterozygosity level analysis. The results analysis proved that 30 alleles of 32 coffee genotypes were successfully amplified, with fragment sizes ranging from 176 to 553bp. The Car M052 locus (0.29%) had the least polymorphism with only two alleles, while the CarM101 locus (0.82%) had the most with 12 alleles, that high and low polymorphism indicated a measure of PIC scores. Heterozygosity analysis showed that the coffee samples were highly heterozygous. And based on the results of the bootstrap analysis, the phenogram shows that the coffee samples are divided into six clusters, with a cophenetic correlation coefficient (r) of 0.948 (excellent fit). This study proved that all SSR loci succeeded in amplifying 30 alleles and could be identified molecularly based on the genetic variation of the Wamena Arabica coffee genotypes in Papua. It seems highly possible that there is a mix of traits through gene flow and exchange between coffee genotypes, and the heterozygosity in the Arabica population on plantations. As a result, it is very important further analysis to confirm the findings.
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